Belove, Schachter, and Schilling · Digital and Analog Systems, Circuits, and Devices: An Introduction. Bennett • Introduction to Signal Transmission. Beranek · . Download Electronic Devices and Circuits (PDF p) Download free online book chm pdf. Jacob Millman and Christos C. Halkias File Type:Online Number. Interesting! This book, which was one of my text books in college, is still available from Amazon. But only used hard cover, because it's long out of print.
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Electronic Devices Circuits - Millman and Halkias ed. - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Scanned text document - OLD edition. M///man and Halkias • Electronic Devices and Circuits. Millman and Halkias. Integrated Electronics: Analog and Digital Circuits and Systems. M///man and Taub. Electronic Devices and Circuits MILLMAN & HALKIAS INTERNATIONAL STUDENT EDI" circuits-text. 25, views. Share; Like; Download.
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DPReview Digital Photography. Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. Amazon Prime Music Stream millions of songs, ad-free. Mauzey, Professor H. Taub, and N.
Voulgaris, who read portions of the manuscript and offered con- structive criticism. We thank Dr. Taub also because some of our material on the steady-state characteristics of semiconductor devices and on tran- sistor amplifiers parallels that in Millman and Taub's "Pulse, Digital, and Switching Waveforms.
Johannes and of the book "Integrated Circuits" by Motorola, Inc. We express our particular appreciation to Miss S. Silverstein, adminis- trative assistant of the Electrical Engineering Department of The City College, for her most skillful service in the preparation of the manuscript. We also thank J. Millman and S. Thanos for their assistance.
Jacob Millman Christos C. In addition, we discuss a number of the more impor- tant electronic devices that depend on this theory for their operation. The motion of a charged particle in electric and magnetic fields is presented, starting with simple paths and proceeding to more complex motions.
First a uniform electric field is considered, and then the analysis is given for motions in a uniform magnetic field. This dis- cussion is followed, in turn, by the motion in parallel electric and mag- netic fields and in perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. The values of many important physical constants are given in Appen- dix A. Some idea of the number of electrons per second that repre- sents current of the usual order of magnitude is readily possible. For example, since the charge per electron is 1.
Yet a current of 1 pA is so small that considerable difficulty is experi- enced in attempting to measure it. In addition to its charge, the electron possesses a definite mass. The most probable value for this ratio is 1. The charge of a positive ion is an integral multiple of the charge of the electron, although it is of opposite sign. For the case of singly ionized parti- cles, the charge is equal to that of the electron. For the case of doubly ionized particles, the ionic charge is twice that of the electron.
The mass of an atom is expressed as a number that is based on the choice of the atomic weight of oxygen equal to The mass of a hypothetical atom of atomic weight unity is, by this definition, one-sixteenth that of the mass of monatomic oxygen. This has been calculated to be 1. A table of atomic weights is given in Appendix C. These are so small that all charges are considered as mass points in the following sections.
Classical and Wave-mechanical Models of the Electron The foregoing description of the electron or atom as a tiny particle possessing a definite charge and mass is referred to as the classical model. If this particle is sub- jected to electric, magnetic, or gravitational fields, it experiences a force, and hence is accelerated.
The trajectory can be determined precisely using New- ton's laws, provided that the forces acting on the particle are known. In this chapter we make exclusive use of the classical model to study electron ballistics. The term electron ballistics is used because of the existing analogy between the motion of charged particles in a field of force and the motion of a falling body in the earth's gravitational field.
For large-scale phenomena, such as electronic trajectories in a vacuum tube, the classical model yields accurate results. For small-scale systems, however, such as an electron in an atom or in a crystal, the classical model treated by Newtonian mechanics gives results which do not agree with experi- ment.
To describe such subatomic systems properly it is found necessary to attribute to the electron a wavelike property which imposes restrictions on the exactness with which the electronic motion can be predicted.
This wave- mechanical model of the electron is considered in Chap. Boldface type is employed wherever vector quantities those having both magnitude and direction are encountered. The mks meter-kilogram-second rationalized system of units is found most convenient for the subsequent studies.
Therefore, unless otherwise stated, this system of units is employed. In order to calculate the path of a charged particle in an electric field, the force, given by Eq. In investigating the motion of charged particles moving in externally applied force fields of electric and magnetic origin, it is implicitly assumed that the number of particles is so small that their presence does not alter the field distribution. If the distance between the plates is small compared with the dimensions of the plates, the electric field may be considered to be uniform, the lines of force pointing along the negative X direction.
This means that the initial velocity vex is chosen along e, the lines of force, and that the initial position x of the electron is along the X axis.
Electronic Devices Circuits - Millman and Halkias 1967 ed.
Since there is no force along the Y or Z directions, Newton's law states that the acceleration along these axes must be zero. However, zero acceler- ation means constant velocity; and since the velocity is initially zero along these axes, the particle will not move along these directions. That is, the only possible motion is one-dimensional, and the electron moves along the X axis.
This analysis indicates that the electron will move with a constant acceleration in a uniform electric field. Consequently, the problem is analogous to that of a freely falling body in the uniform gravitational field of the earth. The solution of this problem is given by the well-known expressions for the velocity and displacement, viz. It is to be emphasized that, if the acceleration of the particle is not a con- stant but depends upon the time, Eqs. Equations follow directly from Eqs.
The applied voltage is zero at the, instant the elec- tron is released, and it increases linearly from zero to 10 V in 0,1 Msec. If the opposite plate is positive, what speed will the electron attain in 50 nsec? Where will it be at the end of this time? With what speed will the electron strike the positive plate? Solution Assume that the plates are oriented with respect to a cartesian system of axes as illustrated in Fig.
The magnitude of the electric field intensity is a. Conversion factors and prefixes are given in Appendix B. Equation shows that an electron that has "fallen" through a certain difference of potential V in going from point xa to point x has acquired a specific value of kinetic energy and velocity, independent of the form of the variation of the field distribution between these points and dependent only upon the magnitude of the potential difference V. This law is known to be valid even if the field is multidimensional.
This result is extremely impor- tant in electronic devices. Stated in its most genera] form, Eq. By definition, the potential energy between two points equals the potential multiplied by the charge in question. Thus the left-hand side of Eq. The right-hand side repre- sents the drop in kinetic energy from A to B. Thus Eq. If the particle is an electron, then — e must be substituted for q. If the electron starts at rest, its final speed v, as given by Eq. Despite this tremen- dous speed, the electron possesses very little kinetic energy, because of its minute mass.
It must be emphasized that Eq.
If the electron does not have zero initial velocity or if the particle involved is not an electron, the more general formula [Eq. For a discussion of the energies involved in electronic devices, even the erg is much too large a unit.
This statement is not to be construed to mean that only minute amounts of energy can be obtained from electron devices. It is true that each electron possesses a tiny amount of energy, but as previously pointed out Sec. A unit of work or energy, called the electron volt eV , is defined as follows: The name electron volt arises from the fact that, if an electron falls through a potential of one volt, its kinetic energy will increase by the decrease in potential energy, or by eV - 1.
The abbreviations MeV and BeV are used to designate 1 million and 1 billion electron volts, respectively. In the general case, where the field may vary with the distance, this equation is no longer true, and the correct result is obtained by differentiating Eq. We obtain dV ax The minus sign shows that the electric field is directed from the region of higher potential to the region of lower potential. It will again be assumed that the electric field between the plates is uniform.
Hence the component of velocity in the Z direction remains constant. Since the initial velocity in this direction is assumed to be zero, the motion must take place entirely in one plane, the plane of the paper. For a similar reason, the velocity along the X axis remains constant and equal to vox. These equations indi- cate that in the region between the plates the electron is accelerated upward, the velocity component vv varying from point to point, whereas the velocity component vx remains unchanged in the passage of the electron between the plates.
The path of the particle with respect to the point is readily determined by combining Eqs. The electrons are to emerge at the point B in time 4. What is the distance AB? What angle does the electron beam make with the horizontal? The bullet will travel in a parabolic path, first rising because of the muzzle velocity of the gun and then falling because of the downward attrac- tive force of the earth. The source of the charged particles is called an electron gun, or an ion gun.
The initial electron velocity is found using Eq. The hot cathode A' emits electrons whieh are accelerated toward the anode by the potential Va. Those electrons which are not collected by the anode pass through the tiny anode hole and strike the end of the glass envelope. Thus the positions where the electrons strike the screen are made visible to the eye.
The displacement D of the electrons is deter- mined by the potential Vd assumed constant applied between the delecting plates, as shown. The velocity vox with which the electrons emerge from the anode hole is given by Eq. The path is a straight line from the point of emergence M at the edge of the plates to the point P' on the screen, since this region is field-free.
The straight-line path in the region from the deflecting plates to the screen is, of course, tangent to the parabola at the point M.
The slope of the line at this point, and so at every point between M and P', is [from Eq. Consequently, a cathode-ray tube may be used as a linear-voltage indicating device.
The electrostatic-deflection sensitivity of a cathode-ray tube is defined as Furthermore, the sensitivity varies inversely with the accelerating potential Va. The idealization made in connection with the foregoing development, viz. Consequently, the effect of fringing of the electric field may be enough to necessitate correc- tions amounting to as much as 40 percent in the results obtained from an application of Eq.
Typical measured values of sensitivity are 1. These plates are referred to as the vertical-deflection and horizontal-deflection plates because the tube is ori- ented in space so that the potentials applied to these plates result in vertical and horizontal deflections, respectively.
The reason for having two sets of plates is now discussed. Suppose that the sawtooth waveform of Fig. Since this voltage is used to sweep the electron beam across the screen, it is called a sweep voltage. The electrons are deflected Vertical-deflection plates Horizontal- deflection plates Vertical signal voltage v.
Horizontal sawtooth voltage Electron beam Ftg. Time linearly with time in the horizontal direction for a time T. Then the beam returns to its starting point on the screen very quickly as the sawtooth voltage rapidly falls to its initial value at the end of each period.
If a sinusoidal voltage is impressed across the vertical-deflection plates when, simultaneously, the sweep voltage is impressed across the horizontal- deflection plates, the sinusoidal voltage, which of itself would give rise to a vertical line, will now be spread out and will appear as a sinusoidal trace on the screen. The pattern will appear stationary only if the time T is equal to, or is some multiple of, the time for one cycle of the wave on the vertical plates.
Millman halkias-electronic devices circuits-text
It is then necessary that the frequency of the sweep circuit be adjusted to synchronize with the frequency of the applied signal. Actually, of course, the voltage impressed on the vertical plates may have any waveform. Consequently, a system of this type provides an almost inertialess oscilloscope for viewing arbitrary waveshapes.
This is one of the most common uses for cathode-ray tubes. If a nonrepeating sweep voltage is applied to the horizontal plates, it is possible to study transients on the screen. This requires a system for synchronizing the sweep with the start of the transient. The sensitivity is greatly increased by means of a high-gain amplifier interposed between the input signal and the deflection plates.
The electron gun is a complicated structure which allows for acceler- ating the electrons through a large potential, for varying the intensity of the beam, and for focusing the electrons into a tiny spot. Controls are also pro- vided for positioning the beam as desired on the screen.
The quantity m is known as the rest mass, or the electrostatic mass, of the particle, and is a constant, independent of the velocity.
From Eqs. By defining the quantity vx as the velocity that would result if the relativistic variation in mass were neglected, i. That it does so is seen by applying the binomial expansion to Eq. This equation also serves as a criterion to determine whether the simple classical expression or the more formidable relativistic one must be used in any particular case. For example, Swc. For an electron, the potential difference through which the particle must fall in order to attain a velocity of 0.
Thus, if an electron falls through a potential in excess of about 3 kV, the relativistic corrections should be applied. If the particle under question is not an elec- tron, the value of the nonrelativistic velocity is first calculated.
If this is greater than 0. In cases where the speed is not too great, the simplified expression may be used. The accelerating potential in high-voltage cathode-ray tubes is sufficiently high to require that relativistic corrections be made in order to calculate the velocity and mass of the particle.
Other devices employing potentials that are high enough to require these corrections are x-ray tubes, the cyclotron, and other particle-accelerating machines. Unless specifically stated otherwise, nonrelativistic conditions are assumed in what follows.
If I and B are not perpendicular to each other, only the component of I perpendicular to B contributes to the force. Some caution must be exercised with regard to the meaning of Fig.
If the particle under consideration is a positive ion, then I is to be taken along the direction of its motion. This is so because the conventional direction of the current is taken in the direction of flow of positive charge. If the current 's due to the flow of electrons, the direction of I is to be taken as opposite to the direction of the motion of the electrons.
Other conversion factors are given in Appendix B. To sum- marize: T-8 Pertaining to the determination of the magnitude of the force fm on a charged particle in a magnetic field. This concept is very useful in many later applications.
By definition, the current density, denoted by the symbol J, is the current per unit area of the conducting medium. That is, assuming a uniform current distribution, "i where J is in amperes per square meter, and A is the cross-sectional area in meters of the conductor. This becomes, by Eq. This derivation is independent of the form of the conducting medium.
Consequently, Fig. It may represent equally well a portion of a gaseous-discharge tube or a volume element in the space-charge cloud of a vacuum tube or a semiconductor. Furthermore, neither p nor v need be constant, but may vary from point to point in space or may vary with time. Numerous occasions arise later in the text when reference ia made to Eq.
Consider an electron to be placed in the region of the magnetic field. If the initial velocity of the particle is along the lines of the magnetic flux, there is no force acting on the particle, in accordance with the rule associated with Eq.
Hence a particle whose initial velocity has no component normal to a uniform magnetic field will continue to move with constant speed along the lines of flux. Now consider an electron moving with a speed v to enter a constant uniform magnetic field normally, aa shown in Fig. Since the force fm is perpendicular to v and so to the motion at every instant, no work is done on the electron.
This means that its kinetic energy is not increased, and so its speed remains unchanged. Further, since v and B are each constant in magnitude, then fm is constant in magnitude and perpendicular to the direction of motion of the particle.
This type of force results in motion in a circular path with constant speed. It is analogous to the problem of a mass tied to a rope and twirled around with constant speed. The force which is the tension in the rope remains constant in magnitude and is always directed toward the center of the circle, and so is normal to the motion. Further, the period and the angular velocity are inde- pendent of speed or radius. This means, of course, that faster-moving particles will traverse larger circles in the same time that a slower particle moves in its smaller circle.
This very important result is the basis of operation of numer- ous devices, for example, the cyclotron and magnetic-focusing apparatus. Assume that the tube axis is so oriented that it is normal to the field, the strength of which is 0. The anode potential is V; the anode- screen distance is 20 cm Fig. Solution According to Eq. From Eq. This example indicates that the earth's magnetic field can have a large effect on the position of the cathode-beam spot in a low-voltage cathode-ray tube.
If Fig. This figure is not drawn to scale. I -U the anode voltage is higher than the value used in this example, or if the tube is not oriented normal to the field, the deflection will be less than that calculated.
In any event, this calculation indicates the advisability of carefully shielding a cathode-ray tube from stray magnetic fields.
However, since it is not feasible to use a field extending over the entire length of the tube, a short coil furnishing a transverse field in a limited region is employed, as shown in Fig. The magnetic field is taken as pointing out of the paper, and the beam is deflected upward. It is assumed that the magnetic field intensity B is uniform in the restricted region shown and is zero outside of this area. Hence the electron moves in a straight line from the cathode to the boundary of the magnetic field.
In the region of the uniform magnetic field the electron experiences a force of magnitude eBv, where v is the speed. The path OM will be the arc of a circle whose center is at Q. It is observed that this quantity is independent of B. This condition is analogous to the electric case for which the electrostatic sensitivity is independent of the deflecting potential. However, in the electric case, the sensitivity varies inversely with the anode voltage, whereas it here varies inversely with the square root of the anode voltage.
Because the sensitivity increases with L, the deflecting coils are placed as far down the neck of the tube as possible, usually directly after the accelerating anode. Deflection in a Television Tube A modern TV tube has a screen diameter comparable with the length of the tube neck.
Under these cir- cumstances it is found that the deflection is no longer proportional to B Prob. If the magnetic-deflection coil is driven by a sawtooth current waveform Fig. For such wide-angle deflection tubes, special linearity- correcting networks must be added. A TV tube has two sets of magnetic-deflection coils mounted around the neck at right angles to each other, corresponding to the two sets of plates in the oscilloscope tube of Fig. Sweep currents are applied to both coils, with the horizontal signal much higher in frequency than that of the vertical sweep.
The result is a rectangular raster of closely spaced lines which cover the entire face of the tube and impart a uniform intensity to the screen. When the video signal is applied to the electron gun, it modulates the intensity of the beam and thus forms the TV picture.
Imagine that a cathode-ray tube is placed in J a constant longitudinal magnetic field, the axis of the tube coinciding with the direction of the magnetic field. A magnetic field of the type here con- sidered is obtained through the use of a long solenoid, the tube being placed within the coil. Inspection of Fig.
The Y axis represents the axis of the cathode-ray tube. The origin is the point at which the electrons emerge from the anode. The velocity of the origin is v , the initial transverse velocity due to the mutual repulsion of the electrons being VoX.
It is now shown that the resulting motion is a helix, as illustrated. The electronic motion can most easily be analyzed by resolving the velocity into two components, vv and v9t along and transverse to the magnetic field, respectively. Since the force is perpendicular to B, there is no accelera- tion in the Y direction. A force eBvt normal to the path will exist, resulting from the transverse velocity.
This accounts for the appear- ance of a broad, faintly illuminated area instead of a bright point on the screen. However, the period, or the time to trace out the path, is independent of vex, and so the period will be the same for all electrons. If, then, the distance from the anode to the screen is made equal to one pitch, all the electrons will be brought back to the Y axis the point 0' in Fig.
Under these conditions an image of the anode hole will be observed on the screen. As the field is increased from zero, the smudge on the screen resulting from the defocused beam will contract and will become a tiny sharp spot the image of the anode hole when a critical value of the field is reached. This critical field is that which makes the pitch of the helical path just equal to the anode-screen distance, as discussed above. By continuing to increase Sec.
Electronic path the strength of the field beyond this critical value, the pitch of the helix decreases, and the electrons travel through more than one complete revolution.
The electrons then strike the screen at various points, so that a defocused spot is again visible.
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