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Francis D. K. Ching, Architecture Form, Space And Order 3rd Edition. The BookReader requires JavaScript to be enabled. Please check that your browser. ARCHITECTURE Form, Space, & Order Third Edition ARCHITECTURE Form, Space, D.K. Ching John Wiley & Sons, Inc. This book is printed on acid-free paper. purchased, you may download this material at lyubimov.info com. ARCHITECTURE Form, Space, & Order Fourth Edition ARCHITECTURE Form, Courtesy of Francis D.K. Ching This book is printed on acid-free ∞ paper. you purchased, you may download this material at lyubimov.info AGREEMENT Go to lyubimov.info to access Wiley's ebook EULA.


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Architecture: form, space, & order. [Francis D K Ching] -- "This is an introduction to the basic vocabulary of architectural design, updated with new information on. Architecture - Form, Space and Order 3rd lyubimov.info - Ebook download as PDF File ( .pdf) or read book online. Architecture - Form, Space and Order 3rd edition. The revered architectural reference, updated with contemporary examples and interactive 3D models The Interactive Resource Center is an.

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Pub Date: Chinese Publisher: Wiley Basic information Title: Francis Publisher: Wiley Publication Date: Paperback Folio: Primary Elements. Point Elements. Two Points. Linear Elements. From Line to Plane. Planar Elements. Volumetric Elements. Properties of Form. If you want to download this book, click link in the next page 5. Download or read Architecture: Form, Space, and Order by click link below Download or read Architecture: Form, Space, and Order OR 6.

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Book details Author: Francis D. Ching Pages: Wiley Language: English ISBN Description this book The revered architectural reference, updated with contemporary examples and interactive 3D models The Interactive Resource Center is an online learning environment where instructors and students can access the tools they need to make efficient use of their time, while reinforcing and assessing their understanding of key concepts for successful understanding of the course.

This bestselling visual reference helps both students and professionals understand the 4. If you want to download this book, click link in the last page 6. If you want to download this book Download Architecture: You just clipped your first slide!

Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Visibility Others can see my Clipboard. Cancel Save. In architecture, we are concerned with the shapes of: This architectural composition illustrates the interplay between the shapes of planar solids and voids.

Given any composition of forms, we tend to reduce the subject matter in our visual field to the simplest and most regular shapes. The simpler and more regular a shape is, the easier it is to perceive and understand.

Placing a circle in the center of a field reinforces its inherent centrality. Associating it with straight or angular forms or placing an element along its circumference, however, can induce in the circle an apparent rotary motion.

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When resting on one of its sides, the triangle is an extremely stable figure. When tipped to stand on one of its vertices, however, it can either be balanced in a precarious state of equilibrium or be unstable and tend to fall over onto one of its sides.

It is a bilaterally symmetrical figure having two equal and perpendicular axes. All other rectangles can be considered variations of the square—deviations from the norm by the addition of height or width. Like the triangle, the square is stable when resting on one of its sides and dynamic when standing on one of its corners. When its diagonals are vertical and horizontal, however, the square exists in a balanced state of equilibrium.

Surface first refers to any figure having only two dimensions, such as a flat plane. The term, however, can also allude to a curved two-dimensional locus of points defining the boundary of a three-dimensional solid. There is a special class of the latter that can be generated from the geometric family of curves and straight lines. This class of curved surfaces include the following: Depending on the curve, a cylindrical surface may be circular, elliptic, or parabolic.

Because of its straight line geometry, a cylindrical surface can be regarded as being either a translational or a ruled surface. Because of its straight line geometry, a ruled surface is generally easier to form and construct than a rotational or translational surface.

Parabolas are plane curves generated by a moving point that remains equidistant from a fixed line and a fixed point not on the line. Hyperbolas are plane curves formed by the intersection of a right circular cone with a plane that cuts both halves of the cone. It can thus be considered to be both a translational and a ruled surface. If the edges of a saddle surface are not supported, beam behavior may also be present. The type of structural system that can best take advantage of this doubly curved geometry is the shell structure—a thin, plate structure, usually of reinforced concrete, which is shaped to transmit applied forces by compressive, tensile, and shear stresses acting in the plane of the curved surface.

The structure consists of a radial arrangement of eight hyperbolic paraboloid segments. Like shell structures, gridshells rely on their double curvature geometry for their strength but are constructed of a grid or lattice, usually of wood or steel. Gridshells are capable of being formed into irregular curved surfaces, relying on computer modeling programs for their structural analysis and optimization and sometimes their fabrication and assembly as well.

See also pages — for a related discussion of diagrids. Symmetrical curved surfaces, such as domes and barrel vaults, are inherently stable. Asymmetrical curved surfaces, on the other hand, can be more vigorous and expressive in nature. Their shapes change dramatically as we view them from different perspectives. It is for this reason that these are beautiful forms, the most beautiful forms. Circles generate spheres and cylinders; triangles generate cones and pyramids; squares generate cubes.

Sphere A solid generated by the revolution of a semicircle about its diameter, whose surface is at all points equidistant from the center. A sphere is a centralized and highly concentrated form. Like the circle from which it is generated, it is self-centering and normally stable in its environment.

It can be inclined toward a rotary motion when placed on a sloping plane. From any viewpoint, it retains its circular shape.

Cylinder A solid generated by the revolution of a rectangle about one of its sides. A cylinder is centralized about the axis passing through the centers of its two circular faces. Along this axis, it can be easily extended. The cylinder is stable if it rests on one of its circular faces; it becomes unstable when its central axis is inclined from the vertical.

Like the cylinder, the cone is a highly stable form when resting on its circular base, and unstable when its vertical axis is tipped or overturned. It can also rest on its apex in a precarious state of balance. Pyramid A polyhedron having a polygonal base and triangular faces meeting at a common point or vertex. The pyramid has properties similar to those of the cone.

Because all of its surfaces are flat planes, however, the pyramid can rest in a stable manner on any of its faces. While the cone is a soft form, the pyramid is relatively hard and angular. Cube A prismatic solid bounded by six equal square sides, the angle between any two adjacent faces being a right angle.

Because of the equality of its dimensions, the cube is a static form that lacks apparent movement or direction. It is a stable form except when it stands on one of its edges or corners. Even though its angular profile is affected by our point of view, the cube remains a highly recognizable form. They are generally stable in nature and symmetrical about one or more axes. The sphere, cylinder, cone, cube, and pyramid are prime examples of regular forms.

Forms can retain their regularity even when transformed dimensionally or by the addition or subtraction of elements.

From our experiences with similar forms, we can construct a mental model of the original whole even when a fragment is missing or another part is added. Irregular forms are those whose parts are dissimilar in nature and related to one another in an inconsistent manner.

They are generally asymmetrical and more dynamic than regular forms. They can be regular forms from which irregular elements have been subtracted or result from an irregular composition of regular forms.

Since we deal with both solid masses and spatial voids in architecture, regular forms can be contained within irregular forms. In a similar manner, irregular forms can be enclosed by regular forms. Note how the diagrid pattern becomes more dense in areas where moment stresses are higher.

Dimensional Transformation A form can be transformed by altering one or more of its dimensions and still retain its identity as a member of a family of forms. A cube, for example, can be transformed into similar prismatic forms through discrete changes in height, width, or length. It can be compressed into a planar form or be stretched out into a linear one. Subtractive Transformation A form can be transformed by subtracting a portion of its volume.

Depending on the extent of the subtractive process, the form can retain its initial identity or be transformed into a form of another family. For example, a cube can retain its identity as a cube even though a portion of it is removed, or be transformed into a series of regular polyhedrons that begin to approximate a sphere. Additive Transformation A form can be transformed by the addition of elements to its volume.

The nature of the additive process and the number and relative sizes of the elements being attached determine whether the identity of the initial form is altered or retained. A pyramid can be transformed by altering the dimensions of the base, modifying the height of the apex, or tilting the normally vertical axis.

A cube can be transformed into similar prismatic forms by shortening or elongating its height, width, or depth. Carlo, Project, 17th century, Francesco Borromini St.

If any of the primary solids is partially hidden from our view, we tend to complete its form and visualize it as if it were whole because the mind fills in what the eyes do not see.

In a similar manner, when regular forms have fragments missing from their volumes, they retain their formal identities if we perceive them as incomplete wholes. We refer to these mutilated forms as subtractive forms.

Because they are easily recognizable, simple geometric forms, such as the primary solids, adapt readily to subtractive treatment. These forms will retain their formal identities if portions of their volumes are removed without deteriorating their edges, corners, and overall profile.

Ambiguity regarding the original identity of a form will result if the portion removed from its volume erodes its edges and drastically alters its profile. In this series of figures, at what point does the square shape with a corner portion removed become an L- shaped configuration of two rectangular planes? Khasneh al Faroun, Petra, 1st century A. The basic possibilities for grouping two or more forms are by: Spatial Tension This type of relationship relies on the close proximity of the forms or their sharing of a common visual trait, such as shape, color, or material.

Edge-to-Edge Contact In this type of relationship, the forms share a common edge and can pivot about that edge. Face-to-Face Contact This type of relationship requires that the two forms have corresponding planar surfaces which are parallel to each other.

The forms need not share any visual traits. For us to perceive additive groupings as unified compositions of A number of secondary forms clustered about a form—as figures in our visual field—the combining elements must dominant, central parent-form be related to one another in a coherent manner. These diagrams categorize additive forms according to the nature of the relationships that exist among the component forms as well as their overall configurations. This outline of formal organizations should be compared with a parallel discussion of spatial organizations in Chapter 4.

Linear Form A series of forms arranged sequentially in a row Radial Form A composition of linear forms extending outward from a central form in a radial manner Clustered Form A collection of forms grouped together by proximity or the sharing of a common visual trait Grid Form A set of modular forms related and Lingaraja Temple, Bhubaneshwar, India, c. Because of their inherent centrality, these forms share the self-centering properties of the point and circle. They are ideal as freestanding structures isolated within their context, dominating a point in space, or occupying the center of a defined field.

They can embody sacred or honorific places, or commemorate significant persons or events. In the latter case, the series of forms may be either repetitive or dissimilar in nature and organized by a separate and distinct element such as a wall or path. It combines the aspects of centrality and linearity into a single composition. The core is either the symbolic or functional center of the organization. Its central position can be articulated with a visually dominant form, or it can merge with and become subservient to the radiating arms.

The radiating arms, having properties similar to those of linear forms, give a radial form its extroverted nature. They can reach out and relate to or attach themselves to specific features of a site. They can expose their elongated surfaces to desirable conditions of sun, wind, view, or space. When viewed from ground level, its central core element may not be clearly visible and the radiating pattern of its linear arms may be obscured or distorted through perspective foreshortening.

While it lacks the geometric regularity and introverted nature of centralized forms, a clustered organization is flexible enough to incorporate forms of various shapes, sizes, and orientations into its structure.

Considering their flexibility, clustered organizations of forms may be organized in the following ways: A clustered organization can also consist of forms that are generally equivalent in size, shape, and function. These forms are visually ordered into a coherent, nonhierarchical organization not only by their close proximity to one another, but also by the similarity of their visual properties. Numerous examples of clustered housing forms can be found in the vernacular architecture of various cultures.

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Even though each culture produced a unique style in response to differing technical, climatic, and sociocultural factors, these clustered housing organizations usually maintained the individuality of each unit and a moderate degree of diversity within the context of an ordered whole.

Habitat Israel, Project, Jerusalem, , Moshe Safdie Vernacular examples of clustered forms can be readily transformed into modular, geometrically ordered compositions which are related to grid organizations of form. It generates a geometric pattern of regularly spaced points at the intersections of the grid lines and regularly shaped fields defined by the grid lines themselves. The most common grid is based on the geometry of the square.

Because of the equality of its dimensions and its bilateral sym- metry, a square grid is essentially nonhierarchical and bidirec- tional. It can be used to break down the scale of a surface into measurable units and give it an even texture. It can be used to wrap several surfaces of a form and unify them with its repeti- tive and pervasive geometry.

The square grid, when projected into the third dimension, generates a spatial network of reference points and lines. Within this modular framework, any number of forms and spaces can be visually organized. In these situations, the following forms can evolve: The centrality of a circular form enables it to act as a hub and unify forms of contrasting geometry or orientation about itself.

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The interior space of this mosque is oriented exactly with the cardinal points so that the quibla wall faces in the direction of the holy city of Mecca, while its exterior conforms to the existing layout of the fort. Its surfaces appear as discrete planes with adjoining surfaces to de-emphasize the individuality of the surface planes and distinct shapes and their overall configuration is legible and easily emphasize instead the volume of a form.

In a similar manner, an articulated group of forms accentuates the joints between the constituent parts in order to visually express their individuality.

A form can be articulated by: While a corner can be articulated by simply contrasting the surface qualities of the adjoining planes, or obscured by layering their joining with an optical pattern, our perception of its existence is also affected by the laws of perspective and the quality of light that illuminates the form. For a corner to be formally active, there must be more than a slight deviation in the angle between the adjoining planes.

Since we constantly search for regularity and continuity within our field of vision, we tend to regularize or smooth out slight irregularities in the forms we see. For example, a wall plane that is bent only slightly will appear to be a single flat plane, perhaps with a surface imperfection. A corner would not be perceived. At what point do these formal deviations become an acute angle? If the two planes simply touch and the corner remains unadorned, the presence of the corner will depend on the visual treatment of the adjoining surfaces.

This corner condition emphasizes the volume of a form. A corner condition can be visually reinforced by introducing a separate and distinct element that is independent of the surfaces it joins. This element articulates the corner as a linear condition, defines the edges of the adjoining planes, and becomes a positive feature of the form. If an opening is introduced to one side of the corner, one of the planes will appear to bypass the other.

The opening diminishes the corner condition, weakens the definition of the volume within the form, and emphasizes the planar qualities of the neighboring surfaces. If neither plane is extended to define the corner, a volume of space is created to replace the corner.

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This corner condition deteriorates the volume of the form, allows the interior space to leak outward, and clearly reveals the surfaces as planes in space. The scale of the radius of curvature is important. If too small, it becomes visually insignificant; if too large, it affects the interior space it encloses and the exterior form it describes.

The unadorned corners of the forms emphasize the volume of their mass. The timber joinery articulates the individuality of the members meeting at the corner.

The corner column emphasizes the edge of the building form. Linear patterns have the ability to emphasize the height or length of a form, unify its surfaces, and define its textural quality. A grid pattern unifies the surfaces of the three-dimensional composition. We turn clay to make a vessel; but it is on the space where there is nothing that the utility of the vessel depends.

We pierce doors and windows to make a house; and it is on these spaces where there is nothing that the utility of the house depends. Therefore, just as we take advantage of what is, we should recognize the utility of what is not. Through the volume of space, we move, see forms, hear sounds, feel breezes, smell the fragrances of a flower garden in bloom.

It is a material substance like wood or stone. Yet it is an inherently formless vapor. Its visual form, its dimensions and scale, the quality of its light—all of these qualities depend on our perception of the spatial boundaries defined by elements of form. As space begins to be captured, enclosed, molded, and organized by the elements of mass, architecture comes into being. To better comprehend the structure of a visual field, we tend to organize its elements into two opposing groups: Our perception and understanding of a composition depends on how we interpret the visual interaction between the positive and negative elements within its field.

On this page, for example, letters are seen as dark figures against the white background of the paper surface. Consequently, we are able to perceive their organization into words, sentences, and paragraphs. As it grows in size relative to its field, however, other elements within and around it begin to compete for our attention as figures.

At times, the relationship between figures and their background is so ambiguous that we visually switch their identities Two Faces or a Vase? White-on-Black or Black-on-White? In all cases, however, we should understand that figures, the positive elements that attract our attention, could not exist without a contrasting background.

Figures and their background, therefore, are more than opposing elements. Together, they form an inseparable reality—a unity of opposites—just as the elements of form and space together form the reality of architecture. Shah Jahan built this white marble mausoleum for his favorite wife, Muntaz Mahal. Line defining the boundary B. The form of solid mass C.

The form of the spatial void between solid mass and rendered as a figure rendered as a figure spatial void Architectural form occurs at the juncture between mass and space. In executing and reading design drawings, we should be concerned with both the form of the mass containing a volume of space as well as the form of the spatial volume itself.

Fragment of a Map of Rome, drawn by Giambattista Nolli in Depending on what we perceive to be positive elements, the figure-ground relationship of the forms of mass and space can be inverted in different parts of this map of Rome.

In portions of the map, buildings appear to be positive forms that define street spaces. In other parts of the drawing, urban squares, courtyards, and major spaces within important public buildings read as positive elements seen against the background of the surrounding building mass. At each level, we should be concerned not only with the form of a building but also its impact on the space around it.

At an urban scale, we should carefully consider whether the role of a building is to continue the existing fabric of a place, form a backdrop for other buildings, or define a positive urban space, or whether it A might be appropriate for it to stand free as a significant object in space. At the scale of a building site, there are various strategies for relating the form of a building to the space around it. A building can: D Building as an object in space Buildings defining space Monastery of St.

Meletios on Mt. Kithairon, Greece, 9th century A. H Buildings Defining Space: Building as an Object in Space: The white space in between, however, should not be seen simply as background for the walls, but also as figures in the drawing that have shape and form.

Even at the scale of a room, articles of furnishings can either stand as forms within a field of space or serve to define the form of a spatial field.

Some spaces, such as offices, have specific but similar functions and can determined by, the form of the spaces around it. Alvar Aalto, for example, we can distinguish several categories of spatial forms B. Some spaces, such as concert halls, have specific functional and technical and analyze how they interact. Each category has an active or passive role in requirements, and require specific forms that will affect the forms of the defining space.

Some spaces, such as lobbies, are flexible in nature and can therefore be freely defined by the spaces or grouping of spaces around them. In a similar manner, any three-dimensional form naturally articulates the volume of space surrounding it and generates a field of influence or territory which it claims as its own.

The following section of this chapter looks at horizontal and vertical elements of form and presents examples of how various configurations of these formal elements generate and define specific types of space. This field can be visually reinforced in the following ways.

Elevated Base Plane A horizontal plane elevated above the ground plane establishes vertical surfaces along its edges that reinforce the visual separation between its field and the surrounding ground. Depressed Base Plane A horizontal plane depressed into the ground plane utilizes the vertical surfaces of the lowered area to define a volume of space. Overhead Plane A horizontal plane located overhead defines a volume of space between itself and the ground plane.

The stronger the edge definition of a horizontal plane is, the more distinct will be its field. Although there is a continuous flow of space across it, the field nevertheless generates a spatial zone or realm within its boundaries. The surface articulation of the ground or floor plane is often used in architecture to define a zone of space within a larger context.

The examples on the facing page illustrate how this type of spatial definition can be used to differentiate between a path of movement and places of rest, establish a field from which the form of a building rises out of the ground, or articulate a functional zone within a one-room living environment. The changes in level that occur along the edges of the elevated plane define the boundaries of its field and interrupt the flow of space across its surface.

If the surface characteristics of the base plane continues up and across the elevated plane, then the field of the elevated plane will appear to be very much a part of the surrounding space. If, however, the edge condition is articulated by a change in form, color, or texture, then the field will become a plateau that is separate and distinct from its surroundings.

The edge of the field is well-defined; 1 visual and spatial continuity is maintained; physical access is easily accommodated. Visual continuity is maintained; 2 spatial continuity is interrupted; physical access requires the use of stairs or ramps. Visual and spatial continuity is 3 interrupted; the field of the elevated plane is isolated from the ground or floor plane; the elevated plane is transformed into a sheltering element for the space below.

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The elevated ground plane can be a preexisting site condition, or it can be artificially constructed to deliberately raise a building above the surrounding context or enhance its image in the landscape. The examples on this and the preceding page illustrate how these techniques have been used to venerate sacred and honorific buildings.

Combined with a roof plane, it develops into the semiprivate realm of a porch or veranda. The Farnsworth House was constructed to rise above the flood plain of the Fox River. This elevated floor plane, together with an overhead roof plane, defines a volume of space that hovers delicately above the surface of its site. This raised space can serve as a retreat from the activity around it or be a platform for viewing the surrounding space. Within a religious structure, it can demarcate a sacred, holy, or consecrated place.

The vertical surfaces of the depression establish the boundaries of the field. These boundaries are not implied as in the case of an elevated plane, but visible edges that begin to form the walls of the space. The field of space can be further articulated by contrasting the surface treatment of the lowered area and that of the surrounding base plane.

A contrast in form, geometry, or orientation can also visually reinforce the identity and independence of the sunken field from its larger spatial context.

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Creating a stepped, terraced, or ramped transition from one level to the next helps promote continuity between a sunken space and the area that rises around it. Rock-cut churches of Lalibela, 13th century Whereas the act of stepping up to an elevated space might express the extroverted nature or significance of the space, the lowering of a space below its surroundings might allude to its introverted nature or to its sheltering and protective qualities.

The natural change in level benefits both the sightlines and the acoustical quality of these spaces. Underground village near Loyang, China The ground plane can be lowered to define sheltered outdoor spaces for underground buildings. A sunken courtyard, while protected from surface-level wind and noise by the mass surrounding it, remains a source of air, light, and views for the underground spaces opening onto it. He then uses the vertical bounding surfaces of the reading area for additional book storage.

A sunken area can also serve as a transitional space between two floors of a building. Since the edges of the overhead plane establish the boundaries of this field, its shape, size, and height above the ground plane determines the formal qualities of the space. While the previous manipulations of the ground or floor plane defined fields of space whose upper limits were established by their context, an overhead plane has the ability to define a discrete volume of space virtually by itself.

If vertical linear elements such as columns or posts are used to support the overhead plane, they will aid in visually establishing the limits of the defined space without disrupting the flow of space through the field.

Similarly, if the edges of the overhead plane are turned downward, or if the base plane beneath it is articulated by a change in level, the boundaries of the defined volume of space will be visually reinforced.

It not only Steel Joist shelters the interior spaces of a building from sun, rain, and snow, but also has a major impact on the overall form of a building and the shaping of its spaces. The form of the roof plane, in turn, is determined by the material, geometry, and proportions of its structural system and the manner in which it transfers its loads across space to its supports. Since it need not resist any weathering forces nor carry any major loads, the ceiling plane can also be detached from the floor or roof plane and become a visually active element in a space.

Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia, , Henri Maclaine Pont As in the case of the base plane, the ceiling plane can be manipulated to define and articulate zones of space within a room. It can be lowered or elevated to alter the scale of a space, define a path of movement through it, or allow natural light to enter it from above. The form, color, texture, and pattern of the ceiling plane can be manipulated as well to improve the quality of light or sound within a space or give it a directional quality or orientation.

The following section discusses the critical role vertical elements of form play in firmly establishing the visual limits of a spatial field. Vertical forms have a greater presence in our visual field than horizontal planes and are therefore more instrumental in defining a discrete volume of space and providing a sense of enclosure and privacy for those within it.

In addition, they serve to separate one space from another and establish a common boundary between the interior and exterior environments. Vertical elements of form also play important roles in the construction of architectural forms and spaces. They serve as structural supports for floor and roof planes. They provide shelter and protection from the climatic elements and aid in controlling the flow of air, heat, and sound into and through the interior spaces of a building.

Single Vertical Plane A single vertical plane articulates the space on which it fronts. L-shaped Plane An L-shaped configuration of vertical planes generates a field of space from its corner outward along a diagonal axis.

Parallel Planes Two parallel vertical planes define a volume of space between them that is oriented axially toward both open ends of the configuration. U-shaped Plane A U-shaped configuration of vertical planes defines a volume of space that is oriented primarily toward the open end of the configuration. Four Planes: Closure Four vertical planes establish the boundaries of an introverted space and influence the field of space around the enclosure. Standing upright and alone, a slender linear element is nondirectional except for the path that would lead us to its position in space.

Any number of horizontal axes can be made to pass through it. When located within a defined volume of space, a column will generate a spatial field about itself and interact with the spatial enclosure. A column attached to a wall buttresses the plane and articulates its surface. At the corner of a space, a column punctuates the meeting of two wall planes.

Standing free within a space, a column defines zones of space within the enclosure. When centered in a space, a column will assert itself as the center of the field and define equivalent zones of space between itself and the surrounding wall planes. When offset, the column will define hierarchical zones of space differentiated by size, form, and location.

Linear elements serve this purpose in marking the limits of spaces that require visual and spatial continuity with their surroundings. Two columns establish a transparent spatial membrane by the visual tension between their shafts. Three or more columns can be arranged to define the corners of a volume of space.

This space does not require a larger spatial context for its definition, but relates freely to it. The edges of the volume of space can be visually reinforced by articulating its base plane and establishing its upper limits with beams spanning between the columns or with an overhead plane.

A repetitive series of column elements along its perimeter would further strengthen the definition of the volume. In the example above, the tokobashira, often a tree trunk in natural form, is a symbolic element that marks one edge of the tokonoma in a Japanese tearoom.

Piazza of St. Four columns can establish the corners of a discrete volume of space During the Renaissance, Andrea Palladio incorporated the tetrastyle theme in within a larger room or setting.

Supporting a canopy, the columns form the vestibules and halls of a number of villas and palazzi. The four columns not an aedicule, a diminutive pavilion that serves as a shrine or the symbolic only supported the vaulted ceiling and the floor above but also adjusted the center of a space. Traditional Roman houses typically were organized about an atrium open In the Sea Ranch condominium units, four posts along with a sunken floor and to the sky and surrounded by a roof structure supported at the corners by an overhead plane define an intimate aedicular space within a larger room.

Vitruvius termed this a tetrastyle atrium. Condominium Unit No. Michel, France, — A regularly spaced series of columns or similar vertical elements form a colonnade. This archetypal element in the vocabulary of architectural design effectively defines an edge of a spatial volume while permitting visual and spatial continuity to exist between the space and its surroundings.