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CHAPTER 1: PREFACE AND INTRODUCTION. TABLE OF CONTENTS .. I. Five Perspectives. Perspectives are used within business analysis work to provide focus to tasks and techniques specific to the context of the initiative and may. Laura is the author of the eBooks The Promotable. Business Analyst and Your IIBA Membership. ▫ Read the BABOK® Guide Introduction.

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Olvera Calderon. All rights reserved. Portions of Appendix A: Version 1.

Analysts who want to explore a particular topic can turn directly to that topic without having to read the preceding content. References to supporting content are readily available if the reader wants to explore a related topic. Version 3. Notice their placement on the Infographic:. The Knowledge Areas also produce specific outputs. Analysts can reference the Infographic to understand which outputs are typically produced during particular phases of a change, and which Knowledge Areas to reference for more detail on those outputs.

The Knowledge Areas leverage behavioral characteristics that Business Analysts should possess. While all come into play throughout our work, certain Knowledge Areas rely more heavily on particular behavioral characteristics. The Infographic provides a guide to the underlying characteristics that will be most important for the tasks within a given Knowledge Area.

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Or share this image on your site using the embed code below: In order to plan the business analysis approach, the business analyst must understand the organizational process needs and objectives that apply to the initiative. These needs and objectives may include compatibility with other organizational processes, con- straints on time-to-market, compliance with regulatory and governance frameworks, the desire to evaluate new approaches to solution development, or other business ob- jectives.

If the objectives are not known, the business analyst may be required to define the requirements that the process must meet. In many cases, organizations will have formal or informal standards in place regarding how business analysis is done and how it fits into project and other activities.

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If this is the case, the business analyst reviews any existing organizational standards, including standards, guidelines, and processes relating to the current initiative. These may sug- gest or dictate which approach to use. Even where a standard approach exists, it must be tailored to the needs of a specific initiative. Tailoring may be governed by organiza- tional standards that define which approaches are permitted, which elements of those processes may be tailored, general guidelines for selecting a process, and so forth.

If no standards exist, the business analyst works with the appropriate stakeholders to determine how the work will be completed. The business analyst should be capable of selecting or creating an approach and working with key stakeholders, particularly the project manager and project team, to ensure that it is suitable. The business analysis approach is often based on or related to the project approach, but in some cases they may be independently determined for example, an organization may use a plan-driven approach to define its business processes and then use a change- driven approach to build the supporting software applications.

The business analysis approach will be shaped by the problem or opportunity faced by the organization. It is generally necessary to consider the risks as- sociated with it, the timeframe in which the need must be addressed, and how well the need is understood. This will help determine whether a plan-driven or change-driven approach is appropriate. Expert Judgment: Used to determine the optimal business analysis approach.

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Prior experiences of the business analyst and other stakeholders should be considered when selecting or modifying an approach. Organizational Process Assets: Include the elements of existing business analysis ap- proaches in use by the organization.

Organizational process assets that may be useful in defining the business analysis approach include methodologies for process change or software development, tools or techniques that are in use or understood by stakehold- ers, corporate governance standards such as COBIT, Sarbanes-Oxley, and Basel II , and templates for deliverables.

In addition to these general standards, the organization may have guidelines in place for tailoring the process to fit a specific initiative.

Figure 2—2: Process 2. Plan-driven approaches focus on minimizing up-front uncertainty and ensuring that the solution is fully defined before implementation begins in order to maximize control and minimize risk. The authority to approve requirements typically rests with selected stakeholders and the project sponsor.

The project sponsor will have the fi- nal authority to approve solution requirements, but it is common for sponsors to insist that other stakeholders grant their approval before the sponsor will. Waterfall methods of software development and business process re-engineering initiatives are typical examples of plan-driven approaches. Change-driven approaches focus on rapid delivery of business value in short iterations in return for acceptance of a higher degree of uncertainty regarding the overall deliv- ery of the solution.

These approaches tend to be preferred when taking an exploratory approach to finding the best solution or for incremental improvement of an existing solution. Agile methods of software development, as well as continu- ous improvement projects, are typical examples of change-driven approaches. The performance of this task is dependent on where the selected approach falls on this spectrum. The descriptions below touch on the ends of the spectrum, and hybrid approaches may combine aspects of both.

Similar considerations must be taken into account whether the business analyst is selecting or tailoring the approach.

This includes determining whether enterprise analysis, requirements analysis, and solution assessment and validation activities will be performed primarily in specific project phases or iteratively over the course of the initiative.

Plan-driven approaches have most business analysis work occur at the beginning of the project or during one specific project phase. The exact name of the phase varies by the specific methodology, but the main focus of the phase includes such activities as eliciting, analyzing, documenting, verifying and communicating the requirements, as well as reporting on the status of the business analysis activities work for the project.

Change-driven approaches may have a business analysis effort conducted early to produce an initial list of high-level requirements also referred to as requirements envi- sioning. This product backlog is then updated throughout the project as new require- ments emerge. Throughout the project, these requirements will be prioritized and re- prioritized based on the business need.

The highest-priority requirements will be taken from the backlog for detailed requirements analysis as resources become available for implementation, and implementation will begin as soon as analysis is complete. The expected deliverables must be defined as part of the approach. See Chapter 4: Requirements Management and Commu- nication for examples of business analysis deliverables.

Requirements are captured in a formal document or set of documents which follow standardized templates. This may be preceded by a number of requirements related documents, built with increasing levels of detail, including a high level vision and scope document that focuses on business requirements, and documents describing the requirements from the point of view of specific stakeholder groups.

Relevant stakehold- ers must generally formally approve each of these documents before work begins on requirements at a lower level of detail. The specific content and format of the require- ments documents can vary, depending on the organizational methodologies, processes, and templates. Change-driven approaches favor defining requirements through team interaction and through gathering feedback on a working solution.

Mandatory requirements documen- tation is often limited to a prioritized requirements list. An alternative approach is to document the requirements in the form of acceptance criteria accompanied by tests. Formal documentation is often produced after the solution is implemented to facilitate knowledge transfer. Methods of prioritizing requirements are discussed in Prioritize Requirements 6.

Also see Chapter 5: Enterprise Analysis for information on defining the solution scope and Chapter 4: Requirements Management and Communica- tion for information on managing the solution scope. Prioritization methods will also be used when performing Allocate Requirements 7. Change-driven approaches tend to place a great deal of emphasis on effective requirements prioritization methods, due to the small scope of each iteration or release.

Consider the expected likelihood and frequency of change and ensure that the change management process is effective for those levels of change. Effective business analysis practices can significantly reduce the amount of change required in a stable business environment but cannot eliminate it entirely.

Plan-driven approaches seek to ensure that changes only occur when they are genu- inely necessary and can be clearly justified. Changed re- quirements impact both the solution scope and the project scope and the change man- agement process will be incorporated into the overall project management process.

Many organizations have a formal process which includes a request for change, a change log that tracks the changes that have been received, and an analysis of the impact of the change not only to the project, but also to other business and automated systems.

In practice, the number and impact of change requests often increases to- wards the end of the project. Change-driven approaches presume that it is difficult to identify all requirements in advance of their implementation.

There is generally no separate change management process distinct from the selection of requirements for a given iteration. Changes to existing solution capabilities are simply prioritized and selected for an iteration using the same criteria as new features and capabilities. In most cases, this process will be integrated into a larger project plan. Decisions must be made at the outset of the project as to the applicability of such communications technologies such as email with regards to project decision-making and approval of deliverables.

Plan-driven approaches tend to rely on formal communication methods. Much of the communication of the actual requirements is in writing, and often uses pre-defined forms requiring signatory approvals. All project documentation is normally archived as part of the project history. Change-driven approaches focus more on frequency of communication than on for- mal documentation. Official documentation is often in writing, but informal commu- nication takes precedence over more formal written communication.

Documentation frequently occurs following implementation. These tools may shape the selection of business analysis techniques, notations to be used, and the way that requirements will be packaged. The factors listed below, among others, increase the complexity of business analysis efforts as they increase: Many organizations have a need for knowledge regarding a solution to be maintained over the long term, because responsibility for the solution may be outsourced, because of turnover within the project team, geographical distribution of participants, or be- cause key personnel are on contract and will not remain available to the organization following implementation.

Formal documentation may be required to address these risks. May be used to rate available methodologies against the orga- nizational needs and objectives. Process Modeling 9. Process Models can be used to define and document the business analysis approach. Structured Walkthrough 9. This can be used as a means of validating a created, selected, or tailored business analysis approach.

The approach taken may depend on their availability and involvement with the initiative. Implementation SME: The business analysis approach taken should be compatible with the implementation lifecycle used by the implementation team. Project Manager: The project manager must ensure that the business analysis ap- proach is compatible with other project activities.

The business analysis approach must facilitate appropriate testing activities. Aspects of the approach or decisions made in the tailoring process may require approval. The sponsor may also have needs and objectives that apply to the ap- proach itself. This is a definition of the approach that will be taken for business analysis in a given initiative. A business analysis approach may specify team roles, deliverables, analysis techniques, the timing and frequency of stakeholder interactions, and other elements of the business analysis process.

A methodology is a formalized and repeatable business analysis approach. It includes a decision about which organizational process assets will be applied and any decisions made regarding tailoring of the process for a specific situation. Stakeholder analysis begins with identifying stakeholders who may be affected by the business need or a new solution.

Stakeholders may be grouped into categories that reflect their involvement or interest in the initiative. The roles, responsibilities, and authority over the requirements for each stakeholder or stakeholder group must be clearly described.

Stakeholder analysis also involves understanding stakeholder influence on and attitude towards the initiative, and assessing positive and negative attitudes and behaviors which may affect the outcome of the initiative and acceptance of the solution. Identify and analyze the position of the stakeholders affected by the business need. As the understanding of that need evolves through definition of business requirements, solution scope, stakeholder requirements, and solution requirements, that additional information will be used to assist in identifying additional stakeholders or understanding how existing stakeholders may have changed their position.

Enterprise Architecture: Describes the organizational units that exist, their interac- tions with other organizational units, customers, and suppliers, their responsibilities within the organization, and the roles and relationships within each organizational unit. These include organizational policies and procedures, forms that must be completed, suggested or prescribed methodologies, templates, and project authorization guidelines.

They may be mandated or expressed in the form of guiding principles. Note that some individuals may be called on to play a variety of stakeholder roles on the same project, as well as on different roles on different projects.

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Change-driven approaches may better accommo- date this risk, but cannot eliminate it, as late stakeholder identification can still result in alterations to the project roadmap and release content. Who participates in which business analysis activities can vary between projects, methodologies, and organizations.

For example, some organizations may encourage members of the technical team to attend requirements workshops to provide costs, technical effort estimates and information on technical impacts while others may rule that no technical discussion is permitted during these meetings.

Different ap- proaches, plans, reports, amount of formality, and the amount of documentation can be customized based on the number of stakeholders each subject matter expert represents.

Stakeholders with fewer constituents may be able to represent their stakeholder group without much difficulty. Stakeholders representing a large number of constituents or representing those from different functional areas or divisions may need to research information or engage in requirements elicitation themselves.

The plan- ning for stakeholders who represent those performing complex, interfacing, or overlapping business processes is different from those whose processes are more self-contained. Since not all stakeholders can or want to attend all requirements workshops, they can be more easily persuaded if the workshop pertains to their process and the associated software application.

Factors to con- sider include: Attitude towards: Understanding the nature of influence and the influence structures and channels within an organization can prove invaluable when seeking to build relation- ships and work towards building trust. Understanding the influence each stakeholder may have, as well as their attitude, can help develop strategies for obtaining buy-in and collaboration.

Some factors relating to influence to consider are: How much influence does the stakeholder have on the project? For instance, because sponsors obtain funding, including resources, and make vital decisions, they usually exert more than end-users. The business analyst should ana- lyze how much influence is needed to make the project succeed compared with the amount of influence the key stakeholders, such as the project sponsor, have.

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For ex- ample, on a large, complex project requiring many internal and external resources, the project will need a sponsor who has effective relationships with funding groups to ensure that adequate resources are available for project work.

Projects that are smaller may require sponsors with less influence. If there is a mismatch between the influence required and the amount of influence the stakeholder has or is per- ceived to have, develop risk plans and responses and other strategies that might be needed to obtain the required level of support. Within most organizations there is an infor- mal way influence occurs.

It is best to be aware of this informal influence structure. For example, if there are stakeholders who consider themselves project champions, they can be helpful in converting those who are less enthusiastic or even outwardly hostile to the project purpose and designated outcomes. The business analyst should, as part of the stakeholder analysis, identify which stakeholders have sufficient authority to accept or reject the solution.

Brainstorming 9. May assist in identifying needs and requirements that lead to possible stakeholders, or in creating a listing of possible stakeholder roles.

Interviews 9. Interviewees may be able to identify other stakeholders. Organization Modeling 9. Assess to determine if the organizational units or people listed have any unique needs and interests that should be considered.

It will de- scribe the roles and functions in the organization and the ways in which stakeholders interact and so will help to identify stakeholders who are affected by a change.

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Any person involved in the execution of business processes affected by the solution will be a stakeholder. Process models can be a source for iden- tifying additional stakeholders, since related processes may be affected. In addition, categorizing stakeholders by the systems that support their business processes can be useful when changes need to be made to those processes and systems. Requirements Workshops 9.

During requirements workshops, the business ana- lyst may ask participants if they can suggest other stakeholders. Risk Analysis 9. Risks to the initiative may result from stakeholder attitudes or the ability of key stakeholders to participate in the initiative. Scenarios and Use Cases 9. Identified stakeholder roles may serve as a useful starting point for identifying actors and roles. Scope Modeling 9. Scope models should show stakeholders that fall outside the scope of the solution but still interact with it in some way.

It describes stakeholders as having one or more of the following responsibilities for a given task or deliverable: Figure 2—4: There are many forms of stakeholder map, but two common ones include: Figure 2—5: Stakeholder Matrix High Work closely with stakeholder to Ensure stakeholder ensure that they are in agreement remains satisfied. Influence of Stakeholder Keep informed; stakeholder is Monitor to ensure stakeholders likely to be very concerned and interest or influence do not may feel anxious about lack of change.

Stakeholder Onion Diagram Customers, suppliers, regulators, and others. Delivery Project team and others directly involved with creating the solution. May be able to recommend other business experts to assist in defining requirements. May be able to identify and recommend stakeholders. In the context of a project with a designated project manager, responsibility for stakeholder identifica- tion and management must be shared with the project manager.

The business analyst and project manager should collaborate on performing this task. The project man- ager is accountable for ensuring that the project team meets commitments made to the stakeholders, managing the assignment of stakeholders to project tasks and their involvement in the execution of the project, and ensuring that changes that impact the project scope are appropriately managed and approved.

The business analyst will also assist the project manager in defining which project team members should be involved in developing, reviewing or approving business analysis deliverables. May require that specific stakeholder representatives or groups be involved in the process. May be able to identify domain subject matter experts to help with require- ments definition.

This may include information such as: This task includes activities to: The activities that are executed and how they are executed will determine the quality and timeliness of the business analysis deliverables and ultimately of the solution.

The business analysis plan s identify and schedule the activities and resources required to produce a clear, concise set of requirements that support development of the solution. This planning activity will typically occur more than once on a given initiative or project, as plans frequently must be updated to address changing business conditions, issues encountered by the business analyst or other team members, lessons learned through the performance of business analysis activities, or other changing circum- stances.

One way of accommodating change on a larger initiative is to plan on an incremental or rolling-wave basis. This approach to planning creates a high-level plan for the long term and detailed plans to address near-term activities, with the understanding that the long-term plans will change as more information becomes available.

An alternative, used in change-driven methodologies, is to follow a well-defined, time-limited process for developing requirements and limit each iteration to the work that can be completed in the time allotted. A long-term roadmap may be used to set expectations, but the contents of the roadmap are constantly revisited as priorities change. Defines the lifecycle, deliverables, templates, and tasks that should be included.

Plan-driven approaches seek to define requirements as early as possible to reduce uncertainty, while change-driven approaches encourage require- ments to be defined as close to implementation as possible.

These differences will lead to different deliverables and tasks being identified as well as different sequences and dependencies of tasks. The approach will also determine how the planning process is performed. Business Analysis Performance Assessment: The business analyst must use prior experiences on this initiative or on others to determine the effort involved in perform- ing business analysis work. The organizational standards and process assets in place may mandate certain deliverables.

Lessons learned from previous initiatives, as well as from currently ongoing business analysis activities, may be used in the develop- ment of business analysis plans. Stakeholders will exhibit individual behaviors and preferences that may need to be met. For example, one key stakeholder may prefer the use of process maps, which could influence the planning of business analysis tasks related to this stakeholder.

Another stakeholder may have some experi- ence using a particular technology and be in favor of its choice for the current project, which might also influence the business analysis deliverables, tasks, and estimates. Un- derstanding their roles and responsibilities on the project will help to determine how much those preferences will shape the plan. In addition, time will have to be set aside to work with stakeholders to elicit and analyze requirements and for those stakehold- ers with decision-making authority to approve requirements.

Some projects will have the stakeholders located in a single location while others will have some of their key stakeholders dispersed over a wide area. These lat- ter projects may well involve increased complexity, which will have an impact on the estimate of some activities and tasks in the project. Stakeholders may be collocated or dispersed.

All key stakeholders are located in the same local geographic area. There are no special location-related planning considerations for the business analyst in- volved in these projects. These more complex projects have some key stakeholders located in differ- ent geographic regions or countries. If stakeholders are dispersed, it may be necessary to have more teleconfer- ences or videoconferences rather than face to face meetings.

Another common situation involves an outsourced development project where the de- velopment team is physically located many time zones away. This type of situation, for example, will be accounted for during business analysis planning and might be better served with more detailed requirements documentation and acceptance criteria, more frequent review sessions or more detailed documentation.

For example, in a project to purchase a new software package, the work will be different from an effort to devel- op a new business process. Different kinds of business analysis initiatives include but are not limited to: Methods for identify- ing deliverables include, but are not limited to: The business analysis approach frequently mandates the use of certain techniques.

Most agile methods assume that user stories will be used to document stakeholder requirements, and a Business Pro- cess Management initiative will require process modeling. Frequently, additional techniques may be selected on an ad-hoc basis during execution of business analysis as the business analyst encounters situations for which they are most appropriate.

For example, the business analyst may decide to elicit requirements using a requirements workshop, and then determine in that workshop that a particular stakeholder has additional requirements which are best identified through an inter- view or observing that stakeholder on the job. Deliverables will often take the form of a requirements package, as described in Pre- pare Requirements Package 4.

The selection and format of requirements packages is likely to be mandated by the business analysis approach. The WBS decomposes the project scope into smaller and smaller pieces, creating a hierarchy of work. A WBS may break down the project into iterations, releases, or phases; break deliverables into work packages; or break activities into smaller tasks.

Work packages include at least one and usually many activities, which can be further broken into smaller and smaller tasks. This decomposition of activities and tasks cre- ates the Activity List. The Activity List can be created in different ways, such as by: In addition, it may include other information, such as: For each task, there may be factors or conditions which are considered to be true.

The business analyst can document these factors, and where present esti- mates will be developed using these assumptions. Identify logical relationships, such as which activities have to be com- pleted before subsequent tasks can begin.

Represent significant events in the progress of a project. Milestones are used to measure the progress of the project and compare actual progress to earlier estimates.

Milestones can be used as a time to celebrate the completion or delivery of a major deliverable or section of project work. A variety of estimation techniques can be used to produce an over- all assessment of the amount of business analysis work required. In some cases, multi- ple techniques may be used to validate one another.

Estimates are normally developed in conjunction with the project manager and other team members, and make use of the organizational methodology and templates for developing estimates.

Functional Decomposition 9. Decomposition of the tasks in a project using a work breakdown structure or product using a solution breakdown structure can be used to facilitate an understanding of the work at a sufficient level of detail to enable estimation of tasks.

Identify risks that might impact the business analysis plan s. Domain SMEs will likely be a major source of requirements and their availability is critical when planning activities. Their understanding of business analysis techniques may shape the selection of techniques or require that the business analyst devote some time to assist them in understanding how the requirements are defined.

Customers and suppliers may be especially difficult to schedule effectively. The Implementation SMEs may participate in business analysis activities in order to facilitate understanding of stakeholder needs. They will need to know in what form and when deliverables will be produced as inputs into their own activity planning. Operational Support: May use business analysis deliverables as a basis for planning operational support activities or developing appropriate documentation.

In a project, the business analysis plan is integrated with and a component of the overall project plan. The project manager should participate in busi- ness analysis planning and is responsible for ensuring that those plans are integrated with the work performed by other project personnel. In addition, the scope of business analysis work within a project is managed as part of the overall project scope, and changes to that scope of work for example, as new stakeholders are identified or busi- ness requirements change may require approval of a project scope change.

The project manager will also play a key role in identifying resources to perform tasks, scheduling the activities, and developing cost estimates. Will need to know in what form and when deliverables will be produced as inputs into their own activity planning. Must participate in the approval of business analysis deliverables. The business analysis plan s may include information such as a description of the scope of work, the deliverable Work Breakdown Structure, an Activity List, and estimates for each activity and task.

It should also describe when and how the plan should be changed in response to changing conditions. The level of detail associated with the plan s is determined by the business analysis approach and the overall methodology. All tasks in all other knowledge areas have business analysis plans as an implicit input.

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The plan s determine when and how any task is performed. Record and organize the activities to provide a basis for setting expectations for business analysis work, meet- ings, walkthroughs, and other communications. Requirements can be presented in various formats. This task describes the work required to decide which format s are appropriate for a particular initiative and its stakeholders.

Considerations for the business analysis communications plan include: Stakeholder needs and constraints relevant to communication include: May include standards and templates used for commu- nication, and expectations regarding when and how communication should occur.

Business Analysis Plan s: Determines when work will be performed and the deliver- ables that will be produced, and which need to be communicated. May include a defined set of templates for use in busi- ness analysis communication, including presentation formats, requirements documen- tation templates, and others. Stakeholder List, Roles, and Responsibilities: Used to identify the stakeholders who will require information regarding business analysis work, determine when informa- tion needs to be provided, and how a stakeholder is expected to use that information.

For example, it is more difficult to have short, daily team meetings when the participants live in vastly different time zones, when technology is not readily accessible, and where multiple, complex deliverables with complex interfaces are being developed simultane- ously in different locations. Cultural considerations are important regardless of where the team members are located.

In addition to the obvious language barriers, there may be more subtle differ- ences that should be planned, including: Some cultures view deadlines as firm commitments, while others may view deadlines as a goal to be balanced against other concerns and interests.

Some cultures complete tasks because they have committed to the planned activities. Others complete tasks primarily when trust and the human relationship have been built.

Some cultures believe in the letter of the law, others in the spirit of the contract. This difference might surface when creating Requests for Proposal, for example.

Some cultures prefer a central- ized power structure where decisions are made by a small group, while others prefer to involve all affected stakeholders in approving decisions.

Some examples are: A new, customized in-house software development project. In this scenario, all requirements may need to be included. Upgrading the technology or infrastructure of a current system. In this scenario, only the technical requirements may need to be included in the package.

Change in a business process or new data for an existing application. In this scenario, the process and data requirements, business rules, functional and technical requirements will be needed.

Purchase of a software package. This type of project will likely require a Request For Proposal, and the package will need to include the business requirements, technical requirements, limited functional requirements and other vendor specifications.

Short, focused, agile style iterations of software development. These projects may not specify any or very little formal requirements documentation. Whiteboards, flip charts, and user stories may suffice. Agile focuses on creating the minimum neces- sary of documentation to deliver the requirements, and many agile teams will prefer to document the solution after it has been delivered. Note the frequency of reporting can vary from stakeholder to stakeholder.

For example, the frequency of reporting business analysis status can be biweekly for the sponsor, weekly for the Domain Subject Matter Experts and biweekly for the technical partners.

This could vary from stakeholder to stakeholder, project phase to project phase, work within a project phase, and requirements presentation. Communication tends to be more formal under the following circumstances: The level of communications formality tends to increase as the scale of a project increases.

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